A smart city vision can be delivered through phases. First, the city needs to determine its aims and objectives. These might be economic, social or safety. Once those core aims have been determined, the city needs to develop social strategies or targets to deliver them. A city might set a target to create 100,000 new jobs, or to improve its air quality by 20 percent, or deliver 200,000 new affordable homes. Once the city’s aims and targets are defined, the city will expectedly work towards developing technical strategies such as energy, urban mobility, water and waste to plan how the city delivers its aims. It is the integration of these technical strategies that provide real opportunities to deliver the Smart 30 percent. For example, integrating transport and energy strategies to deliver an e-bus rapid transit scheme delivers better access services, reduced energy consumption, better air quality and a cleaner energy mix. It is also integrated with ICT to provide real time travel information and payment options as well as delivering highly efficient bus stations.
Smart thinking across multiple technical strategies, can deliver more efficient, coordinated services and achieve multiple aims. A smart city brings together a number of technical disciplines and strategies to deliver smarter solutions. The smart city creates value through this communication and integration between different sectors and silos in a city. The Ministry of Urban Development has identified four different smart city typologies.
Greenfield: New construction creates the opportunity to fully benefit from smart technologies as an entire new system can be planned, integrated and delivered simultaneously. Greenfield development is also the most economical way to deliver a fully smart city. For parallel delivery allows for sharing of costs. In some cases, delivery of smart systems could even result in lower demand for infrastructure, which lessens the costs even more. For example, smart buildings with embedded energy generation and storage, could mean that less large-scale power generation is required. Full realization of ‘smart’ requires the integration of key technical design strategies, including: energy, electricity, urban mobility, safety and security, waste and water treatment, and ICT.
Redevelopment: Redevelopment of a city district will create a near Greenfield opportunity as the entire built area of the district will be replaced with a new layout and mixed-use development. These projects will have the challenge of working with existing below ground infrastructure and possible energy and water utilization limits. Redevelopment with smarter technologies would allow for more overall development because improved efficiency could reduce overall demand for energy and water.
Retrofit: Retrofit is expected to be delivered across large areas (500 acres or more) and will aim to make the existing area more livable through smart technologies. Most of the existing city and infrastructure is expected to remain, thus the specific retrofitted technologies will be expected to truly deliver the extra ‘Smart 30 percent.’ The vision expects the retrofit cities to have a high degree of smart technologies, thus delivery will likely require integration of all technical strategies.
Pan-City: Pan-city projects would involve the roll-out of key technologies across an entire city. The aim would be to employ Smart Technologies across city-wide systems that could bring the Smart 30 percent through targeted investments
Consortium: Confederation of Indian Industries (CII) has facilitated formation of a German consortium led by Siemens along with Bosch, Deutsche Bank, KFW and few others. To ensure that cities can access cutting edge technology and concepts related to Smart Cities. It has purposefully weaved in the factor of work-packages thus offering flexibility to ensure cities and states can determine what is most important to them. The Consortium believes this approach not only allows for effective integration but also has flexibility to adapt to city needs and circumstances. Different methodologies for making cities smart can be used for different smart city typologies, that is Greenfield, retrofit, redevelopment or pan city. The consortium is committed to Smart City mission, and the same is demonstrated the work already done in tailoring a response specific to the smart city mission.
Smart cities use an integrated network of IoT, big data and analytics to tackle problems regarding power-water supply, internet connectivity, e-governance and more. These smart solutions will generate large amounts of data that require an Information and Communication Technology (ICT) platform. Storing and analysing this data is essential to improve the quality of living and enhance customer experiences. To fulfill this need and facilitate a smooth flow of data, Bosch India provides data storage, analysis, APIs and dashboards for authorities.